UNESCO has released its seventh official Science Report. The document is published every five years*. This Science Report’s title, ‘The Race Against Time for Smarter Development’, reflects the trajectory of global transformation stipulated by the United Nations in its 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) to be achieved by 2030, from ending poverty to protecting the planet’s natural resources. The authors of the Report describe how science contributes to these goals, analyze global scientific trends, and present 23 detailed regional and national cases. Below, IQ.HSE examines the objectives Russian science is pursuing in the context of the SDGs and what efforts it is taking to achieve them. This article is based on the Russian chapter of the Report prepared by Leonid Gokhberg, First Vice Rector, Director of the Institute for Statistical Studies and Economics of Knowledge (ISSEK) of HSE University, and Tatiana Kuznetsova, Academic Supervisor of the Centre for Science, Technology, Innovation and Information Policy at ISSEK, HSE University.